Die Wissenschaft hinter Monster Fitness

Das innere Monster

Als ich die Idee zu Monster Fitness hatte, war für mich direkt ein Punkt klar:

Das Letzte was ich wollte, war eine weitere Plattform zu schaffen wie: „In 6 Wochen zur Traumfigur – hier ist dein Ernährungsplan, dein Trainingsplan, hier ein paar Videos, in denen du angeschrien wirst und hier noch ein paar Bilder von einem Fitnessmodel mit Sixpack, das dich motivieren soll.“

Das Ziel ist es, die Herausforderung „Abnehmen“ und die dafür nötige Selbstmotivation bis ins Detail zu entschlüsseln und dann so effektiv und einfach wie möglich zu erklären.

monster

So weit, so simpel.

Input hatte ich anhand meines eigenen Wissens und der ziemlich Umfangreichen Studienrecherchen genug.

Wie du wahrscheinlich gemerkt hast, habe ich mich gegen Fitnessmodel-Fotos mit Sixpack und Bizeps auf jeder Seite entschieden.

Irgendwie sympathisch sollte es werden.

Vielleicht mit etwas Humor. Nicht trocken.

Lebendig.

Klar: Kleine, niedliche Monster.

Was genau ist also nun dein inneres Monster?

Im Prinzip ist es einfach eine Metapher für die Programme in unserem Gehirn.

Studien hinter Monster Fitness

Auch wenn ich bereits mein halbes Leben der Selbstmotivation und Ernährung gewidmet habe, habe ich nochmal ein Selbststudium der Motivationspsychologie und Ernährungswissenschaften begonnen, für das ich nicht nur so ziemlich alle relevanten Bücher und ihre Theorien gelesen, sondern auch insgesamt über 300 aktuelle, wissenschaftliche Artikel bis zum Start der Plattform gelesen und auseinander genommen habe.

Im Folgenden findest du nun eine Auswahl der Studien, die für diese Plattform benutzt wurden. Da es sich hier größtenteils um die Hauptgebiete Motivation und Ernährung zum Abnehmen dreht, habe ich die Studien der Einfachheit halber in „Motivation“ und „Ernährung“ eingeteilt.

Studien zum Bereich Motivation

  • TEIXEIRA, Pedro J., et al. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2012, 9. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 22.

Link zur Studie

  • DAVIS, Jon F., et al. Leptin regulates energy balance and motivation through action at distinct neural circuits. Biological psychiatry, 2011, 69. Jg., Nr. 7, S. 668-674.

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  • WEST, Delia Smith, et al. Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care, 2007, 30. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 1081-1087.

Link zur Studie

  • TEIXEIRA, Pedro J., et al. Self-regulation, motivation, and psychosocial factors in weight management. Journal of Obesity, 2012, 2012. Jg.

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  • ELFHAG, Kristina; RÖSSNER, Stephan. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. Obesity reviews, 2005, 6. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 67-85.

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  • SVETKEY, Laura P., et al. Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss: the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. Jama, 2008, 299. Jg., Nr. 10, S. 1139-1148.

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  • WING, Rena R., et al. A self-regulation program for maintenance of weight loss. New England Journal of Medicine, 2006, 355. Jg., Nr. 15, S. 1563-1571.

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  • SUMITHRAN, Priya, et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. New England Journal of Medicine, 2011, 365. Jg., Nr. 17, S. 1597-1604.

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  • MORTON, G. J., et al. Central nervous system control of food intake and body weight. Nature, 2006, 443. Jg., Nr. 7109, S. 289.

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  • PATRICK, Kevin, et al. A text message–based intervention for weight loss: randomized controlled trial. Journal of medical Internet research, 2009, 11. Jg., Nr. 1.

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  • JELALIAN, Elissa, et al. Predictors of attrition and weight loss in an adolescent weight control program. Obesity, 2008, 16. Jg., Nr. 6, S. 1318-1323.

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  • KELLEY, Ann E., et al. Corticostriatal-hypothalamic circuitry and food motivation: integration of energy, action and reward. Physiology & behavior, 2005, 86. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 773-795.

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  • BRUG, Johannes. Determinants of healthy eating: motivation, abilities and environmental opportunities. Family practice, 2008, 25. Jg., Nr. suppl_1, S. i50-i55.

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  • MATA, Jutta, et al. Motivational “spill-over” during weight control: Increased self-determination and exercise intrinsic motivation predict eating self-regulation. 2011.

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  • PI-SUNYER, F. Xavier. The impact of weight gain on motivation, compliance, and metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postgraduate medicine, 2009, 121. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 94-107.

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  • SHARMA, S.; FERNANDES, M. F.; FULTON, S. Adaptations in brain reward circuitry underlie palatable food cravings and anxiety induced by high-fat diet withdrawal. International journal of obesity, 2013, 37. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 1183.

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  • MADY, Mackenzie A., et al. The ketogenic diet: adolescents can do it, too. Epilepsia, 2003, 44. Jg., Nr. 6, S. 847-851.

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  • LA FLEUR, S. E., et al. A reciprocal interaction between food-motivated behavior and diet-induced obesity. International journal of obesity, 2007, 31. Jg., Nr. 8, S. 1286.

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  • WILLIAMS, Geoffrey C., et al. Self-determination, smoking, diet and health. Health education research, 2002, 17. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 512-521.

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  • NARAYANASWAMI, V., et al. Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation. International Journal of Obesity, 2013, 37. Jg., Nr. 8, S. 1095.

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  • ASHIDA, Sato; WILKINSON, Anna V.; KOEHLY, Laura M. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican-origin adults: implications for diet and physical activity. American Journal of Health Promotion, 2012, 26. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 176-179.

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  • TEIXEIRA, P. J., et al. Pretreatment predictors of attrition and successful weight management in women. International journal of obesity, 2004, 28. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 1124.

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  • VALLERAND, Robert J.; LOSIER, Gaétan F. An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of applied sport psychology, 1999, 11. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 142-169.

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  • CHARBONNEAU, Danielle; BARLING, Julian; KELLOWAY, E. Kevin. Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of applied social psychology, 2001, 31. Jg., Nr. 7, S. 1521-1534.

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  • JEFFERY, Robert W., et al. Physical activity and weight loss: does prescribing higher physical activity goals improve outcome?. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2003, 78. Jg., Nr. 4, S. 684-689.

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  • PLOTNIKOFF, Ronald C.; HIGGINBOTHAM, N. Protection Motivation Theory and exercise behaviour change for the prevention of heart disease in a high-risk, Australian representative community sample of adults. Psychology, health & medicine, 2002, 7. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 87-98.

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  • ALEXANDRIS, Konstantinos; TSORBATZOUDIS, Charalambos; GROUIOS, George. Perceived constraints on recreational sport participation: Investigating their relationship with intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Journal of Leisure Research, 2002, 34. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 233-252.

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  • KILPATRICK, Marcus; HEBERT, Edward; BARTHOLOMEW, John. College students‘ motivation for physical activity: differentiating men’s and women’s motives for sport participation and exercise. Journal of American college health, 2005, 54. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 87-94.

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  • TRAIL, Galen T.; JAMES, Jeffrey D. The motivation scale for sport consumption: Assessment of the scale’s psychometric properties. Journal of sport behavior, 2001, 24. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 108.

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  • FREDRICKS, Jennifer A.; ECCLES, Jacquelynne S. Family socialization, gender, and sport motivation and involvement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2005, 27. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 3-31.

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  • SEO, Won Jae; GREEN, B. Christine. Development of the motivation scale for sport online consumption. Journal of Sport Management, 2008, 22. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 82-109.

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  • GILLET, Nicolas, et al. Influence of coaches‘ autonomy support on athletes‘ motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of sport and exercise, 2010, 11. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 155-161.

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  • VLACHOPOULOS, Symeon P.; KARAGEORGHIS, Costas I.; TERRY, Peter C. Motivation profiles in sport: A self-determination theory perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 2000, 71. Jg., Nr. 4, S. 387-397.

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  • HODGE, Ken; LONSDALE, Chris. Prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport: The role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement. Journal of sport and exercise psychology, 2011, 33. Jg., Nr. 4, S. 527-547.

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  • FREDERICK-RECASCINO, Christina M.; SCHUSTER-SMITH, Hana. Competition and intrinsic motivation in physical activity: A comparison of two groups. Journal of Sport Behavior, 2003, 26. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 240.

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  • SPRAY, Christopher M., et al. Understanding motivation in sport: An experimental test of achievement goal and self determination theories. European journal of sport science, 2006, 6. Jg., Nr. 01, S. 43-51.

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  • PAPAIOANNOU, Athanasios, et al. Causal relationships of sport and exercise involvement with goal orientations, perceived competence and intrinsic motivation in physical education: A longitudinal study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2006, 24. Jg., Nr. 4, S. 367-382.

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  • BLANCHARD, Céline M., et al. Reciprocal relationships between contextual and situational motivation in a sport setting. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2007, 8. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 854-873.

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  • LIPPKE, Sonia; WIEDEMANN, Amelie U. Sozial-kognitive Theorien und Modelle zur Beschreibung und Veränderung von Sport und körperlicher Bewegung-ein Überblick. Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie, 2007, 14. Jg., Nr. 4, S. 139-148.

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  • RYAN, Richard M.; DECI, Edward L. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 2000, 55. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 68.

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  • LOCKE, Edwin A.; LATHAM, Gary P. Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American psychologist, 2002, 57. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 705.

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  • YOON, Yooshik; UYSAL, Muzaffer. An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism management, 2005, 26. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 45-56.

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  • WIGFIELD, Allan; ECCLES, Jacquelynne S. Expectancy–value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary educational psychology, 2000, 25. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 68-81.

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  • FREY, Bruno S.; JEGEN, Reto. Motivation crowding theory. Journal of economic surveys, 2001, 15. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 589-611.

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  • OSTERLOH, Margit; FREY, Bruno S. Motivation, knowledge transfer, and organizational forms. Organization science, 2000, 11. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 538-550.

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  • GARRIS, Rosemary; AHLERS, Robert; DRISKELL, James E. Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & gaming, 2002, 33. Jg., Nr. 4, S. 441-467.

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  • FREDRICKS, Jennifer A.; ECCLES, Jacquelynne S. Family socialization, gender, and sport motivation and involvement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2005, 27. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 3-31.

Link zur Studie

  • WISE, Roy A. Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nature reviews neuroscience, 2004, 5. Jg., Nr. 6, S. 483.

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  • ZIMMERMAN, Barry J. Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American educational research journal, 2008, 45. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 166-183.

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  • DECI, Edward L.; RYAN, Richard M. Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 2008, 49. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 14.

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  • BENABOU, Roland; TIROLE, Jean. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The review of economic studies, 2003, 70. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 489-520.

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  • COLQUITT, Jason A.; LEPINE, Jeffrey A.; NOE, Raymond A. Toward an integrative theory of training motivation: a meta-analytic path analysis of 20 years of research. Journal of applied psychology, 2000, 85. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 678.

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  • REEVE, Johnmarshall. Understanding motivation and emotion. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.

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  • BRADLEY, Margaret M., et al. Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion, 2001, 1. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 276.

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  • CARDINAL, Rudolf N., et al. Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2002, 26. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 321-352.

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  • ELLIOT, Andrew J.; DWECK, Carol S. (Hg.). Handbook of competence and motivation. Guilford Publications, 2013.

Link zur Studie

Studien zum Bereich Motivation

  • PARKER, Barbara, et al. Effect of a high-protein, high–monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care, 2002, 25. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 425-430.

Link zur Studie

  • LAYMAN, Donald K., et al. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. The Journal of nutrition, 2003, 133. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 411-417.

Link zur Studie

  • DANSINGER, Michael L., et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. Jama, 2005, 293. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 43-53.

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  • JOHNSTON, Bradley C., et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. Jama, 2014, 312. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 923-933.

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  • WING, Rena R.; PHELAN, Suzanne. Long-term weight loss maintenance–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2005, 82. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 222S-225S.

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  • ROSS, Robert, et al. Reduction in obesity and related comorbid conditions after diet-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss in men: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of internal medicine, 2000, 133. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 92-103.

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  • MORI, Trevor A., et al. Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 1999, 70. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 817-825.

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  • BRINKWORTH, Grant D., et al. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2009, 90. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 23-32.

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  • IMAYAMA, Ikuyo, et al. Effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer research, 2012, 72. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 2314-2326.

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  • WU, T., et al. Long‐term effectiveness of diet‐plus‐exercise interventions vs. diet‐only interventions for weight loss: a meta‐analysis. Obesity reviews, 2009, 10. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 313-323.

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  • ASTRUP, Arne; LARSEN, Thomas Meinert; HARPER, Angela. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss?. The Lancet, 2004, 364. Jg., Nr. 9437, S. 897-899.

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  • CHAN, Dick C., et al. Effect of ezetimibe on hepatic fat, inflammatory markers, and apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics in insulin-resistant obese subjects on a weight loss diet. Diabetes Care, 2010, 33. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 1134-1139.

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  • TÖRRÖNEN, Riitta, et al. Postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to sucrose ingested with berries in healthy subjects. British journal of nutrition, 2012, 107. Jg., Nr. 10, S. 1445-1451.

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  • NG, Marie, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The lancet, 2014, 384. Jg., Nr. 9945, S. 766-781.

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  • FORSYTHE, Cassandra E., et al. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation. Lipids, 2008, 43. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 65-77.

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  • ESPOSITO, Emanuela, et al. Probiotics reduce the inflammatory response induced by a high-fat diet in the liver of young rats. The Journal of nutrition, 2009, 139. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 905-911.

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  • FORSYTHE, Cassandra E., et al. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation. Lipids, 2008, 43. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 65-77.

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  • SASLOW, Laura R., et al. A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes. PloS one, 2014, 9. Jg., Nr. 4, S. e91027.

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  • MILLER, Edgar R., et al. Results of the diet, exercise, and weight loss intervention trial (DEW-IT). Hypertension, 2002, 40. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 612-618.

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  • CURIONI, C. C.; LOURENCO, P. M. Long-term weight loss after diet and exercise: a systematic review. International journal of obesity, 2005, 29. Jg., Nr. 10, S. 1168.

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  • MILLER, Wayne C.; KOCEJA, D. M.; HAMILTON, E. J. A meta-analysis of the past 25 years of weight loss research using diet, exercise or diet plus exercise intervention. International journal of obesity, 1997, 21. Jg., Nr. 10, S. 941.

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  • BRINKWORTH, G. D., et al. Long-term effects of advice to consume a high-protein, low-fat diet, rather than a conventional weight-loss diet, in obese adults with type 2 diabetes: one-year follow-up of a randomised trial. Diabetologia, 2004, 47. Jg., Nr. 10, S. 1677-1686.

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  • NICKLAS, Barbara J., et al. Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2004, 79. Jg., Nr. 4, S. 544-551.

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  • CLIFTON, Peter M.; KEOGH, Jennifer B.; NOAKES, Manny. Long-term effects of a high-protein weight-loss diet–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2008, 87. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 23-29.

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  • NOAKES, Manny, et al. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2005, 81. Jg., Nr. 6, S. 1298-1306.

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  • STERN, Linda, et al. The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 2004, 140. Jg., Nr. 10, S. 778-785.

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  • NORDMANN, Alain J., et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of internal medicine, 2006, 166. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 285-293.

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  • YANG, Mei-Uih; VAN ITALLIE, Theodore B. Composition of weight lost during short-term weight reduction. Metabolic responses of obese subjects to starvation and low-calorie ketogenic and nonketogenic diets. The Journal of clinical investigation, 1976, 58. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 722-730.

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  • FOSTER, Gary D., et al. Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 2010, 153. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 147-157.

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  • MARON, David J.; FAIR, Joan M.; HASKELL, William L. Saturated fat intake and insulin resistance in men with coronary artery disease. The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project Investigators and Staff. Circulation, 1991, 84. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 2020-2027.

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  • SHAI, Iris, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. New England Journal of Medicine, 2008, 359. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 229-241.

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  • YANCY, William S., et al. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of internal medicine, 2004, 140. Jg., Nr. 10, S. 769-777.

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  • BAZZANO, Lydia A., et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets: a randomized trial. Annals of internal medicine, 2014, 161. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 309-318.

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  • BRADLEY, Una, et al. Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial. Diabetes, 2009, 58. Jg., Nr. 12, S. 2741-2748.

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  • SAMAHA, Frederick F., et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 2003, 348. Jg., Nr. 21, S. 2074-2081.

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  • LARSEN, Thomas Meinert, et al. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. New England Journal of Medicine, 2010, 363. Jg., Nr. 22, S. 2102-2113.

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  • SOENEN, Stijn, et al. Relatively high-protein or ‘low-carb’energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?. Physiology & behavior, 2012, 107. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 374-380.

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  • WEIGLE, David S., et al. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2005, 82. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 41-48.

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  • LARA-CASTRO, Cristina; GARVEY, W. Timothy. Diet, insulin resistance, and obesity: zoning in on data for Atkins dieters living in South Beach. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2004, 89. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 4197-4205.

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  • BARNARD, Neal D., et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care, 2006, 29. Jg., Nr. 8, S. 1777-1783.

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  • ZIMMER, Jasmin, et al. A vegan or vegetarian diet substantially alters the human colonic faecal microbiota. European journal of clinical nutrition, 2012, 66. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 53.

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  • HÄNNINEN, Osmo, et al. Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders. Toxicology, 2000, 155. Jg., Nr. 1-3, S. 45-53.

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  • DONALDSON, Michael S. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements. Annals of nutrition and metabolism, 2000, 44. Jg., Nr. 5-6, S. 229-234.

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  • TURNER‐MCGRIEVY, Gabrielle M.; BARNARD, Neal D.; SCIALLI, Anthony R. A Two‐Year Randomized Weight Loss Trial Comparing a Vegan Diet to a More Moderate Low‐Fat Diet. Obesity, 2007, 15. Jg., Nr. 9, S. 2276-2281.

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  • BARNARD, Neal D., et al. A low-fat vegan diet elicits greater macronutrient changes, but is comparable in adherence and acceptability, compared with a more conventional diabetes diet among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2009, 109. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 263-272.

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  • CLARYS, Peter, et al. Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet. Nutrients, 2014, 6. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 1318-1332.

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  • ELKAN, Ann-Charlotte, et al. Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study. Arthritis research & therapy, 2008, 10. Jg., Nr. 2, S. R34.

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  • WOO, Kam S.; KWOK, Timothy CY; CELERMAJER, David S. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health. Nutrients, 2014, 6. Jg., Nr. 8, S. 3259-3273.

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  • DEROSE, David J., et al. Vegan diet-based lifestyle program rapidly lowers homocysteine levels. Preventive Medicine, 2000, 30. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 225-233.

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  • STIEGLER, Petra; CUNLIFFE, Adam. The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass and resting metabolic rate during weight loss. Sports medicine, 2006, 36. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 239-262.

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  • PEREIRA, Mark A., et al. Effects of a low–glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. Jama, 2004, 292. Jg., Nr. 20, S. 2482-2490.

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  • ESPOSITO, Katherine, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. Jama, 2004, 292. Jg., Nr. 12, S. 1440-1446.

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  • BRYNER, Randy W., et al.: Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1999, 18. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 115-121.

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  • WEINSIER, Roland L., et al.: Do adaptive changes in metabolic rate favor weight regain in weight-reduced individuals? An examination of the set-point theory–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2000, 72. Jg., Nr. 5, S. 1088-1094.

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  • AMATRUDA, John M.; STATT, Marcia C.; WELLE, Stephen L.: Total and resting energy expenditure in obese women reduced to ideal body weight. The Journal of clinical investigation, 1993, 92. Jg., Nr. 3, S. 1236-1242.

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Gründungsmotivation

Wenn mich irgendjemand vor fünfzehn Jahren gesehen hatte, hätte er oder sie mich wahrscheinlich abgeschrieben.

Statt in der Schule war ich öfter auf dem Parkplatz vor unserem alten „Kaufland“ und habe dort mit ein paar Freunden Bier getrunken.

„Du hast einfach überhaupt keine Motivation.“ oder „Du bist ein Luftikus.“, waren angesagte Sprüche, wenn Lehrer mal wieder keine Lust auf mich hatten. Zugegebenermaßen war ich auch nicht gerade der aktivste und tollste Schüler. Genau genommen war ich der Schlechteste in meiner Stufe (ich hatte in der 11. Klasse vier Fünfen und eine Sechs).